Common Arka mistakes
Most of the following mistakes are ones I’ve made myself. This is mostly for myself, but it might help to avoid the same mistakes I’ve made.
j as [dʒ]
Please don’t; it’s pronounced [ʒ].
New speakers might be confused by the purposes of the
Note that even then, some verbs such as
Ordering of tense and aspect affixes
One might be tempted to assume that the aspect affix comes closer to the verb than the tense affix, but the tense affix actually comes first:
o vs ont
o is used before a word starting with a consonant.
If you made this mistake, I don’t blame you that much. Even the Japanese web site fails to mention this; you have to look in the dictionary to find out the difference.
Getting adverbs wrong
This is partly a morphological issue and partly a syntactic issue, but let’s go!
- Modal adverbs (法副詞) are such things as
sen(‘can’) or sil(future tense) that convey a grammatical meaning. Most of them come after a verb, but en(‘not’) and the various adverbs for imperatives or prohibitives are an exception.
- Free adverbs (遊離副詞) include adverbs such as
aluut(‘always’) which are more contenty than modal adverbs but more adverby than regular adverbs.
- Regular adverbs (labelled ［副詞］ in the dictionary) comprise of everything else.
Rules for adverbs
|placement||adjacent to the verb (pre/postfix depending on adverb)||anywhere||anywhere|
||no||only if not adjacent to the verb and not modifying an adjective||yes unless modifying an adjective|
myul (or enk) as a verb
These words can only act as nouns, adjective or prepositions.
Modifying a noun with a prepositional phrase with an adverbial preposition
Any preposition labelled with ［格詞］ (such as
ag vs haizen
hot vs tis
hot means ‘nothing or no one except’;
fiina vs lana
fiina translates to ‘on behalf of’ and indicates that the target receives a benefit from the action:
lana translates to ‘in order to’ and indicates a goal instead:
lala vs lulu
They both translate roughly to ‘oh my!’, but the former is a reaction to something negative and the latter to something positive.
‘here and there’ ⇒
become aware of something:
‘what kind of’ ⇒
‘to the degree that’ ⇒