Translated from the original Japanese on 2021-01-04.
Units of sound
Word, morpheme, long syllable, short syllable, mora, half mora, phoneme.
In general, length goes in this order.
However, there are many words and morphemes that consist only of a mora, so one cannot say this about everything as a whole.
Below are the four essentials when it comes to the analysis of stress:
- Long syllable (S, from “syllable”): Long syllables such as CVVC and CVCC.
- Short syllable (H, from “heavy”): Composed of CVC syllables. “C” can be written as “φ”.
- Mora (M, from “medium”): Consists of CV. “C” can be written as “φ”.
- Half mora (L, from “light”): C only, such as
s, t, and k.
We call the above four types accent elements.
Stress is counted from the end of the word.
For that reason, no matter how long a word is, it is sufficient to pay attention only to the last accent elements.
Three accent elements are counted from the back are enough to deduce the position of stress.
This is a table gathering together combinations of the last three accent elements.
The rightmost element is the one in the first position [from the last], and the leftmost element the one in the third position.
Although not visible in the table, the fourth position occurs to the left of the third position.
Formula: The particular combination of accent elements.
Variant: Any other sequences of accent elements the formula can be replaced with.
|HLH||SH, HS (
Note: S = Cn V C2 … (
The first rule
Although the accent table considers only the last three syllables, the range in which stress can occur spans up to the fourth-to-last syllable.
The stress is placed according to the following rules. Lower-numbered rules take precedence over higher-numbered ones.
- Stress on S up to 2nd position
- Stress on H in 2nd or 3rd position
- Stress on M in 3rd position
- Stress on M in 2nd position
- Stress on 4th position
In short, this rule functions the same as “look for the biggest syllable that is a bit distanced from the end of the word”.
HLM becomes SM but not HS.
In the same way, MLH does not become MS, and MLM does not become MH1.
In addition, MML can be reinterpreted as MH.
For that reason, if any of L, M, or H comes before MH, the behavior of what comes after it changes. For instance, MMH and HMH are formed.
The second rule
Since, HMH and MMH are not covered by the first rule, the second rule exists to cover these cases.
If an MH at the end of the word manifests as CV VC, then the pattern is a long syllable such as
The diphthongs within these can be seen to have a strong-weak relationship; for instance, in
Such a syllable, if the first vowel is stronger than the second, is called a strong syllable; otherwise, it is called a weak syllable.
Because the first vowel of a strong syllable is strong, it is easy to put the stress on such a syllable.
Because the earlier vowel of
We denote strong syllables by “X” and weak syllables by “Y”.
When we introduce “X” and “Y”, we can divide HMH into three subtypes:
har/dI/gan: Based on the fundamental rule of HMH, we place the stress on the M. The same applies with such words as armaletand artales.
har/dAin: The stress is placed on X because it is easy to do so.
hAr/dian: Because it is hard to place the stress on Y, the stress is placed on the preceding syllable. If we place the stress on the aafter the i, then we return to where we had started and lose the purpose of dividing CVVC syllables into strong and weak syllables.
The following applies to MMH in a similar way.
These rules cover such cases as
A/ma/lis, A/to/las: the stress is placed on the earlier M according to the rule.
a/gEit: the stress is on X. Similar with elEinand such.
kA/mian, rI/dian. The stress is moved to the preceding syllable.
By the way,
(image not shown)
Exceptions for foreign-language words
Because, for instance, Tiaren places stress on the last syllable of a word, words borrowed from Tiaren often do not conform to these rules.
In the end, these rules are only for words native to Arka.
Exceptions due to meaning
This happens due to meaning; that is, one thinks of them as
If it were a meaningless word such as
Exceptions in the dictionary
Exceptions are noted in the dictionary using the [stress] (［アクセント］) tag.
There are words such as
An a priori stress system
Rules about stress in Arka are made from syllables and moras.
If they are thought of in terms of only syllables, they become Latin-y; if they are thought of in terms of only morae, they become Japanese-y. In either case, the sounds of Arka cannot be eliminated.
However, all possibilities can be covered by the rules above. They are unwavering.
The dictionary and the stress of foreign words
If we show the stress in uppercase, then the Japanese pronunciation of 「着物」 is closer to “kimonO”, while English pronunciation is closer to “kimOno”.
In this case, the “stress” field in the entry in an English-Japanese dictionary would contain “kimOno” instead of “kimonO”.
This fact is self-evident because an English-Japanese dictionary is a dictionary about the English language; there is no guarantee that an English dictionary will go as far as preserving Japanese stress.
The same can be said about the Arka-Japanese dictionary.
Because Tiaren is a fixed-stress language, it is clear that the word was originally
This remark seems to imply that LM could at least theoretically become H, or in other words, H can be CCV as well as CVC. ↩